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Thursday, July 26, 2012

Exploration with Wireline Logs


The information from wireline logs is used to enhance two principle
objectives in the exploration program:
Rock & Reservoir Properties Hydrocarbon Evaluation
a. Environment of Deposition a. Correlation
b. Lithology & Mineralogy b. Structure
c. Radioactivity c. Permeability Traps
d. Porosity Type d. Porosity Type
e. Fluid Properties & Distribution e. Salinity Traps
f. Formation Pressure
g. Temperature
h. Rock Strength & Elastic Properties
There are several complicating factors which must be dealt with in order to
arrive at acceptable values for those formation and hydrocarbon variables.
The three most common factors are:
• The borehole is a dynamic system. The mud system will
penetrate the rocks surrounding borehole, and the borehole wall
is affected by the drilling process and time (time difference
between drilling and the wireline logging runs).
• Matrix and Pore Fluids affect certain tools differently.
• Tool Depth of Investigation is relatively shallow.
Classification of Wireline Logging Tools
1. Lithology Logs - These logs are designed to:
a. Identify permeable formations
b. Determine boundaries between permeable and non-permeable
formations
c. Provide lithology data for correlation with other wells
d. Provide a degree of certainty for quantifying the formation
lithology.
Examples of lithology logs are:
Spontaneous Potential
Gamma Ray
2. Porosity Logs - These logs are designed to:
a. Provide accurate lithologic and porosity determination
b. Provide data to distinguish between oil and gas
c. Provide porosity data for water saturation determination.
Examples of porosity logs are:
Sonic/Acoustic
Neutron
Formation Density
3. Saturation (Resistivity) Logs - These logs are designed to:
a. Determine the thickness of a formation
b. Provide an accurate value for true formation resistivity
c. Provide information for correlation purposes
d. Provide a quick indication of formation pressure, hydrocarbon
content and producibility.
Examples of saturation logs are:
Normal and Lateral Devices
Laterologs
Induction Logs
There are a number of auxiliary wireline services which can provide
additional information to augment the interpretation of formation
characteristics. These include: 1) caliper logs, 2) directional logs, 3)
dipmeter logs, 4) sidewall coring, and 4) formation testers.

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